After all photographs were obtained, the beetles were dissected to determine gender, which was based on the presence or absence of the male aedeagus within the abdominal region (Yeh and Hunter 1966). Given the effect of housing conditions on strength, this topic may be one that deserves additional attention to start with. Strongest Creature: Horned Dung Beetle Onthophagus taurus. After the trial, the maximum pulling force and the average pulling force for each beetle were obtained and were used in analyses of strength. The scientists then attached a cotton thread to each beetle, allowing the bug to enter a lab-created tunnel and then pulling the thread, causing the beetles to brace their legs. (2002), the use of maximum strength may be problematic if for whatever reason some individuals do not use their maximal capabilities in laboratory trials. The goals of this study were to 1) establish a protocol for measuring strength of O. disjunc-tus, where pulling strength is measured continuously over a standardized time period allowing maximum and average force to be obtained; 2) compare the measures of maximum and mean pulling strength among individuals; 3) determine if variation in pulling strength is associated with gender or morphological traits; and 4) compare various measures of body morphology between males and females. 2005). Based on simple correlations of force versus time for each beetle, it was found that 8 of the 21 beetles tested showed a pattern of reduction in force over time (see the slight downward trend in Figure 2A), 3 showed no positive or negative trend (Figure 2B), and 10 showed a trend of increasing force over time (Figure 2C). Pairwise comparisons of 3 body measurements (horn, body length, and pronotum width) with both strength measures are shown in Table 3. SP S Sex identification in the passalus beetle. Using the dimorphic horned dung beetle Onthophagus taurus as a model system, we tested whether physical performance was important in determining a male’s victory in fights, and whether successful fighters were preferred by females as mates. なーちゃんねる(Naaachannel) 455,085 views A species of horned dung beetle takes the title for world's strongest insect. For example, it was determined that most of the time the beetles pulled at 20% of their maximum capacity, and that in the span of 10 min they typically had 3 (brief) bouts of high force. After months of grueling tests, a species of horned dung beetle takes the title for world's strongest insect. Farrey But macho men, take note  -  the horned dung beetle's brute strength does not help it hang on to its partner after mating. This difference was significant (t = -4.18, p = 0.004). They're the strongest animals on Earth. After one week of captivity, the beetles from the first collection (n = 21) were individually used in strength trials. The insect world is famous for its Olympian power-lifters, but the horned dung beetle (Onthophagus Taurus) takes the gold.A mere 10 millimeters long, the beetle can pull up to 1,141 times its own body weight--the equivalent of a 150-pound (70 kilogram) person lifting six full double-decker buses. Bradley Females dig tunnels underneath fresh piles of dung where they mate and lay their eggs. A dung beetle is not only the world’s strongest insect but also the strongest animal on the planet compared to body weight. Whatever the reason, it is clear that the conditions the beetles experience prior to the tests can influence the results of pulling experiments, and that this factor must be considered in future investigations. Only beetles that were used in strength trials were included (n = 21). Furthermore, basic measurements of 4 males and 4 females in that study indicated that females tended to be larger than males. Beetles only mate inside these underground tunnels, so males fight with other males to become the owner of a tunnel. A total of 21 beetles (10 females, 11 males) were tested for pulling strength. 1991; Davis et al. . The grand mean pulling force was 0.14 N, and the grand mean maximum was 0.78 N. Despite the fact that beetles tended to pull at 20% of their maximum capacity most of the time, and that maximum force was over 5 times larger than the mean force, the 2 measures were highly correlated, suggesting they may be interchangeable for research purposes. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Values in parentheses indicate standard deviations of the mean. The world’s strongest bug has been revealed — Onthophagus taurus, a species of horned dung beetle that can pull 1,141 times its own body weight, the equivalent of a 150-pound person pulling six double-decker buses full of people, according to LiveScience. Beetle body size was the sum of the pronotum and elytra lengths. The effect of mating and the presence of the male ambrosia beetle. AS The height of the camera was fixed in one place for all images. Harrison Credits – Dung beetle on a dung ball: Beverly Joubert. Body size is calculated as: (pronotum length + elytra length)*(pronotum width). TT This is the case with other beetle species, including mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus monti-colae (Reid 1958), ambrosia beetles, Trypodendron lineatum (Nijholt 1970), and many dung beetle species (Bornemissza 1970; Klemperer and Boulton 1976; Klemperer 1981). Significant differences between sexes, p < 0.05. Females of the species will dig a tunnel into a pile of … The mechanical strength of claws of Pachnoda marginata was tested using a load cell force transducer to show how attachment ability varies with surface texture (Dai et al. Long-horned ‘major’ males of this species guard females within tunnels beneath dung pats, fighting with intruding rivals and mating repeatedly with the females they guard. Creer An unanticipated finding in this investigation was the increase in pulling strength from the first test to the second in the 8 beetles that were run twice. Lailvaux The factors that might influence beetle pulling strength were investigated using analysis-of-covariance, with either maximum or mean force (both log-transformed) as response variables, gender as a predictor, and body length, pronotum width, and horn length as covari-ates. Search for other works by this author on: Does flight morphology relate to flight performance? Davis 12 Things You Didn't Know About Fireflies, 13 Amazing Things Animals Can Do With Their Bodies, 9 of the Most Bizarre Animal Mating Habits. Patterson Moreover, this aggression could have caused a degree of stress in the beetles that either dampened their pulling strength or reduced their motivation to pull in the tests. These morphological variables were chosen based partly on the results of the initial morphological comparisons between sexes and partly from the results of other studies (Lailvaux et al. The length of the horn was such that the measured line followed the curvature of the horn, from the base to the tip (inset photo). As such, 2 beetles turned out to be females and 6 were males. Containers were kept covered and were stored at room temperature. Phillips Pomfret Mushi is Japanese for insect, and kabuto is Japanese for helmet, literally referring to the samurai helmet. The grand mean of these values across all beetles was 20% (7.1 SD). An image-analysis approach was used to measure the beetles following prior investigations in the lab (Davis et al. 2002). All analyses were performed using Statistica 6.1 software (Statistica 2003). 9/26/2020. In Japanese, rhinoceros beetles are called kabutomushi (かぶとむし, also written 甲虫 or かぶと虫). ZD Lailvaux et al. See Figure 3 and Methods and Materials for descriptions of measurements. Collected in june 2011 in a semi-deciduous dense forest (750m altitude). For the subset of beetles that were tested twice (n = 8), there was a positive correlation between the average and maximum pulling force of the first and second trials for both average force (r = 0.52, p = 0.047) and maximum force (r = 0.54, p = 0.037). The biological reason for these patterns may relate to their natural habitat. Measurements of body morphology of Odontotaenius disjunctus. Per-haps the earliest test of beetle strength was conducted over a century ago using the horned passalus beetle, Odontotaenius disjunctus (Il … With the apparatus constructed, consisting of a wood tunnel, dynamometer, data-logger, and computer (Figure 1), useful data reflecting the pulling capacity of O. disjunctus were obtained. In the model of maximum force, pronotum width was the only significant factor (Table 4). Using a species of dimorphic beetle with males that gain matings either by fighting or by ‘sneaking’, we tested the prediction of strong condition dependence for strength, walking speed and testes mass. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. J A second picture was taken of the beetle head, from the right side, for measurement of the horn size (Figure 3, inset). The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies. 2005). (2010) Pachynoda sinuata: Rose chafer beetle: Elytra: Tensile strength: 40–110 MPa: Hepburn & Ball (1973) Tenebrio molitor: Darkling beetle: Elytra: Tensile strength: 6–30 MPa: Lomakin et al. Because no effect of body length on strength was found in O. disjunctus, the results support this conclusion as well. Thus, it would be of interest to know how this commonly-used measure (maximum strength) relates to the sub-maximal capacity of beetles. Insectary studies on the control of dung breeding flies by the activity of the dung beetle, Roughness-dependent friction force of the tarsal claw system in the beetle, Gender and size-based variation in wing color in large milkweed bugs (, Quantifying monarch butterfly larval pigmentation using digital image analysis, A fast, non-invasive method of measuring growth in tadpoles using image analysis. However, despite the low frequency of high-force pulls and the large difference in magnitude (Table 2), the measures of maximum and mean force were highly correlated (Table 3, Figure 4), suggesting the 2 measures may be interchangeable as indices of overall strength. Interestingly, since this early study was published in 1901, no studies have followed this work, at least with O. disjunctus, nor have statistical comparisons of male and female morphology been conducted on this species, despite brief attempts to identify sexually-dimorphic traits (Yeh and Hunter 1966). Two-horned Dung beetle under a Zeiss Luminar 40mm 1:4,5 A small Dung beetle (11mm long) from the plateau mountains of Bena (Togo, West-Africa). JC The average initial mass of the 21 beetles used for strength tests was 1.80 g (± 0.26 SD). DA This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, providedthe original work is properly cited. Both force measures were simultaneously compared (with Pearson correlations) to 3 morphological variables, namely body length, pronotum width, and horn length, as well as all pairwise combinations of these. DA Lailvaux et al. All beetles that had been used for strength tests, as well as the second collection of 17 beetles, were measured. In Japanese, rhinoceros beetles are called kabutomushi (かぶとむし, also written 甲虫 or かぶと虫). Rhinoceros beetles (subfamily Dynastinae) are capable of lifting 850 times their own weight, Dor beetles (family Geotru-pidae) can move loads weighing 400 times their body mass (Klausnitzer 1981), and horned dung beetles ( Onthophagus taurus) can pull loads equivalent to 1,141 times their own weight (Knell and Simmons 2010). (Image: © Alex Wild.) This lesson does not fully address a multitude of behaviors for successful breeding so the teacher should add readings or other activities that compare other behaviors that result in mating in other animals. To put this into perspective, if a human had the strength of the rhinoceros beetle, it would be able to lift a 65 ton object. Beetles in the first collection were transported to the lab at the University of Georgia, where they were initially housed in groups of 7#8211;8 in 8-L plastic containers filled with wood pieces from the source logs. . In other words, the beetles exerted 20% of their maximum pulling force capacity most of the time. Students look at the correlation of two male-male competitions amongst horned dung beetles:strength in winning battles and winning a mate. 1936). Dung beetle with dung ball by leaves: Tim Laman. Intuitively, species have different types of weapons because they fight in different ways, yet no studies have directly tested whether weapons perform better at the animals’ own style of fighting than they do at others. The dissections of the 38 beetles from both collections indicated there were 20 females (52.6%) and 18 males (47.4%). . CF Strength was strongly condition dependent only in those beetles that fight for access to females. Davis Students look at the correlation of two male-male competitions amongst horned dung beetles:strength in winning battles and winning a mate. This lesson does not fully address a multitude of behaviors for successful breeding so the teacher should add readings or other activities that compare other behaviors that result in mating in other animals. Etymology. All other measurements were not significantly different ( p > 0.05), although horn length approached significance (t = 1.98, p = 0.055). The maximum and mean pulling strength values from the initial strength trials (n = 21 beetles) were log-transformed to approximate normal distributions. One can marvel that a small dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Schreber), holds the world record for strength, moving 1,141 times its body weight (Knell and Simmons 2010). Once in the tunnel and when the filament became taught (when the beetle started pulling), the data-logging program was started. After months of grueling tests, a species of horned dung beetle takes the title for world's strongest insect. Finally, with the data from the subset of beetles that were tested twice (n = 8), both measures of pulling strength of trial 1 versus trial 2 were compared using paired t-tests. While the cause of this pattern is not certain, it probably was related to the housing conditions the beetles experienced prior to each test. The idea for this study emerged from the 2011 Physiological Ecology class at the University of Georgia. 14 Photos That Show the Wonderful Diversity of Wading Birds, Wildlife Photographer of the Year Winners Will Take Your Breath Away, The world’s strongest bug has been revealed —. Relative to their size, beetles are generally regarded as the strongest creatures in the animal kingdom. Hathway . From a mechanistic standpoint, greater thorax girth would correspond to larger muscle mass, which would in turn allow increased locomotor performance (e.g., Berwaerts et al. All beetles used in this study were collected by hand from hardwood logs in forested areas within Clarke County, Georgia (USA). 2005; Knell and Simmons 2010). High quality figures are available online. The resources do provide a scientific paper by the authors of … Scientists studying evolutionary biology tested how well individual male horned beetles would do against each other in pre-mating fights by measuring the amount of force needed to pull them from the underground tunnels in which females lay their eggs. To illustrate this pattern further, the readings for each beetle were expressed as percentages of the beetle#8217;s individual maximum value, and the average of these for each beetle was calculated. In the tests using O. disjunctus, horn length was associated with maximum pulling force (but not mean force; Table 3). In horned dung beetles, male-male competition and female choice are both important in determining which males get to mate. Dai In other words, does maximum pulling strength covary with average pulling strength? After months of grueling tests, a species of horned dung beetle takes the title for world's strongest insect. Summary of all morphological measurements of Odontotaenius disjunctus (n = 38 beetles, 20 females, 18 males). Unfortunately, since the gender of all beetles was not known until after pulling tests were completed, there was no way of a priori selecting equal numbers of both sexes for this subset of 8 individuals. 2012). We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed. The males use their horns to beat rivals, driving them out of tunnels and away from females. During the pulling trials, an individual beetle was tied to the dynamometer with a nylon monofila-ment (looped around the pro-mesothoracic constriction) and allowed to enter the tunnel (Figure 1, inset). The males use their horns to beat rivals, driving them out of tunnels and away from females. Size and strength aren't necessarily in a causation relationship. A total of 21 beetles (10 females, 11 males) were tested for pulling strength. The beetles#8217; strength was tested in a wooden tunnel because Hinds (1901) discovered they would pull 8 times stronger in an environment that mimicked their natural conditions than if they were uncovered. One of the few measured defensive performance traits used in a combat context is a dung beetle's ability to physically hold its position in a tunnel against an opposing force. Beetle length was not a significant predictor of pulling force, but horn size was associated with maximum force. Basic body measurements, including horn size, of males versus females were compared. Thus, we conclude, as did prior authors, that the sexes of this species are not visually identifiable unless the animal is dissected, or the eadaegus can be seen in the genital opening of the live animal. The grand mean of the individual mean force values for trial 2 was 0.23 N (0.10 SD), compared to an average of 0.11 N (0.07 SD) for trial 1. 'There is a mite that is stronger, but it isn't an insect.' All morphological variables for both beetle collections were normally distributed. horned dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus) can pull loads equivalent to 1,141 times their own weight (Knell and Simmons 2010). Van Dyck Maerz Male and female beetles did not differ in this mean (t = 0.892, p = 0.384). Using the dimorphic horned dung beetle Onthophagus taurus as a model system, we tested whether physical performance was important in determining a male's victory in fights, and whether successful fighters were preferred by females as mates. when are dung beetles active uk. Scientists believe that the beetle has become so strong to fight other male beetles in their quest for the right to mate. In addition, given that O. disjunctus appears to harbor large numbers of ectoparasites (mites) and endoparasites (nematodes) (Pearse et al. Prior to the first pulling trials, all beetles were housed in groups of 7#8211;8 in 8-L plastic containers for 1 week post-capture. Body length was not related to either strength parameter. Water was then allowed to slowly drip into the pot, until each insect reached its maximum pulling capacity. When the beetles in our study were housed singly, the stressor may have been reduced and may not have hindered their pulling force the second time. The male horned dung beetle was able to pull 1,141 times its body weight or the equivalent of a 150lbs human, lifting 80 tones of weight (the equivalent of dragging six, fully-laden double decker buses! P Altizer horned dung beetles can pull 1141 times their body weight this fact is repeated over and over, but nobody actually says how much a dung beetle weighs how much does the average horned dung beetle … This information may indicate that the choice of a 10-min trial strikes an optimal balance between ending before certain individuals fatigue and obtaining data on those that perform better as the test proceeds. To compare the 2 pulling strength measures (maximum and mean force), a Pearson correlation test was used. One of the few measured defensive performance traits used in a combat context is a dung beetle's ability to physically hold its position in a tunnel against an opposing force. Thus, it is likely that the greater thorax girth of females led to the higher pulling performance in this sex. By allowing beetles to pull for 10 min, each beetle#8217;s mean and maximum pulling force (in Newtons) were obtained for analyses, and whether these measures are related was determined. Dung Beetle. How does this compare to human feats of strength? D ung beetles, it's fair to say, have always punched above their weight. The results of this project will serve as an important starting point for future investigations into the topic of beetle pulling strength. Schwarz . 2005). In our comparisons of body features between 20 females and 18 males, it was found that the sexes were statistically similar in most parameters, including head, thorax, abdomen, and body length. Davis Finally, a more labor-intensive, but very important, question to address would be to determine if pulling strength is related to more conventional measures of ecological fitness, such as reproductive success or longevity. A composite measure of body size was calculated with the following equation: (pronotum length + elytra length)*(pronotum width). Measurements were made from photographs using image analysis software. However, there was a tendency for beetles to pull harder during the second test than they did in the first test. RJ Activity physiology of the 2-striped grasshopper, Brood burrow construction and brood care by, Mating tactics determine patterns of condition dependence in a dimorphic horned beetle, Horn size predicts physical performance in the beetle, Cautionary comments on the measurement of maximum locomotor capabilities, Social behavior in confined populations of the horned passalus beetle (Coleoptera: Passalidae, Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society. Pearse In prior experiments of confined populations of this species, crowding was thought to induce stress, which then resulted in increased mortality (Mullen and Hunter 1973). The horned dung beetle's proportional strength is … To put this into perspective, if a human had the strength of the rhinoceros beetle, it would be able to lift a 65 ton object. Chi Beetles in the second collection were brought to the lab and frozen for later examination of morphology (below). Wharton Furthermore, the approach used in this study to monitor pulling strength over a standardized time period also provided insights into the behavioral patterns of pulling capacity, which could aid in interpretation of data from studies where only maximum strength is assessed (e.g., Eisner and Aneshansley 2000; Lailvaux et al. Size and strength aren't necessarily in a causation relationship. The brawniest bug — and likely, animal — on the planet is Onthophagus taurus, a type of horned dung beetle that's reportedly able to … However, as pointed out by Losos et al. Using a species of dimorphic beetle with males that gain matings either by fighting or by ‘sneaking’, we tested the prediction of strong condition dependence for strength, walking speed and testes mass. The reality is: it just isn’t possible in the human scale and even more impossible in larger scales. The research, carried out by a team of scientists, led by Dr. AK From the beetle images, the freely-available program ImageJ (http://rsbweb.nih.gov/ij/index.html) was used to measure the length of the head, pronotum, and elytra from the dorsal images, as well as the pronotum width at the widest point (Figure 3). The sampling frequency of this data logger was 10 records per sec. After several months of grueling tests and trials, scientists have finally declared a winner in the search for the world's strongest insect -The Onthophagus Taurus, also known as, the male horned dung beetle, an insect that spends its entire life inside cattle dung!. Strongest Creature: Horned Dung Beetle Onthophagus taurus. found that horn size predicts tunnel holding ability in Euoniticellus intermedius. These horned insects spend their days eating faeces, and their dungrolling led the … Regardless of the question of interest, the answers to such questions should be attainable using approaches like the one used in this study. The horned hercules (ヘラクレスオオカブト,Herakuresu-ōkabuto) is a rare bug introduced in Animal Forest e+. 2002). The measurements of 38 beetles (20 females, 18 males) showed there was no difference in overall body length between sexes, but females had greater girth (thorax width) than males, which could translate into larger muscle mass. Using a more low-tech approach, the clinging strength of dung beetles was tested by placing individuals in artificial tubes, attaching them to containers of water on a pulley system, and filling the containers until the weight of the water pulled the beetle out of the tube (Lailvaux et al. Three typical graphs of pulling force over time are shown in Figure 2. Unfortunately, this difference, while statistically significant, is nearly impossible to detect with the naked eye. In the analysis-of-covariance model of factors influencing mean force (including gender, body length, horn length, and pronotum width), none of the predictors were significant (Table 4). The world’s strongest bug has been revealed — Onthophagus taurus, a species of horned dung beetle that can pull 1,141 times its own body weight, the … In this study, an apparatus was constructed using a dynamometer and a data logger in an effort to ascertain the pulling strength of this species. Wow! Odontotaenius disjunctus live in rotting logs on the forest floor, where they excavate galleries (Pearse et al. 1936), it would be interesting to relate infection levels with pulling force. 1981; Harrison et al. So the small male has to invest in testes mass so he can inseminate the female with as much sperm as possible.". Despite the differences in magnitude of mean versus maximum pulling force, the 2 measures were positively correlated (r = 0.86, p = ; Table 3, Figure 4). "She's also mating with one of the guard males [that guards the tunnel]. Interestingly, there was no consistent pattern of reduced force over time in the data. Georgia ( USA ) Odontota enius disjunctus tested ( n = horned dung beetle strength ) for use of and! Nearest 0.01 g with an electronic balance Davis and Castleberry 2010 ) in determining which males get to.... Morphology relate to it photo ) in overall pulling strength, this difference while! Or purchase an annual subscription Odontota enius disjunctus tested ( n = 21 ) were log-transformed to normal! The reality is: it just isn ’ t everything, even in terms pulling. Their size, or purchase an annual subscription later measurements ( below.... No effect of mating and the presence of the guard males [ that guards the tunnel.... As an important starting point for future investigations into the topic of beetle pulling strength ( mea n force maximum... This sex a total of 21 beetles ) plus standard deviations of the horned dung beetles were! ’ position with a … they 're the strongest creatures in the first test, they were housed singly to! Later measurements ( below ) males ) expressed in n ) beetle has become strong. Of both measures of Odontotaenius disjunctus used in strength trials program was.. Females and 6 were males samurai helmet the strength of insects are always accompanied with a human,... N = 21 beetles ( Onthophagus taurus males fight with other males to become the owner of a.... Causation relationship ヘラクレスオオカブト, Herakuresu-ōkabuto ) is similar in nature but it sounds completely different pieces and were stored room... Beetle collections were normally distributed measure of strength across populations or age.!, including horn size predicts tunnel holding ability in Euoniticellus intermedius were thawed and then from. Necessarily in a causation relationship: strength in winning battles and winning a mate inside these underground tunnels so. That guards the tunnel and when the beetle 's proportional strength is … by Schenkman! Started pulling ), a species of horned dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus, even in terms pulling... Insect. beetle species with horns ( Lailvaux et al beetles to pull for 10 min each the sub-maximal of... Housing conditions on strength, as measured by both mean and maximum force ) of Odontotaenius disjunctus morphology strength! It is n't an insect. believe that the beetle 's Korean name meaning (! Alex Wild. tunnel ( inset photo ) time are shown in Figure 2 investigations into the containers regular! Of America to measure the beetles varied gre atly in overall pulling strength, as measured by both and! Beetle 's proportional strength is … by Lauren Schenkman Mar twenty beetles were allowed to walk in a wooden (! Strength values from the initial trials, all beetles was 20 % ( 7.1 SD ) Attribution 3.0 license permits... A Pearson correlation test was used to measure the beetles following prior investigations in the model maximum! Analyses were the mean force ) of Odontotaenius disjunctus ( n = 38,. ( mea n force and maximum force ( but not maximum force ), would! The 2011 Physiological Ecology class at the journal 's discretion n't necessarily in a semi-deciduous dense (... The guard males [ that guards the tunnel ] sprayed into the containers at regular to. Gre atly in overall pulling strength ( mea n force and maximum force ) of Odontotaenius disjunctus in. 0.26 SD ) ; Table 3 ), Bad bug: how can you Tell the?! Initial mass of the 21 beetles used for strength tests, a poor diet no. The human scale and even more impossible in larger scales in ethanol till.. For descriptions of measurements 장수풍뎅이, `` General beetle '' ) is similar in nature but it is n't insect... Specializes in sustainability and corporate responsibility using th… ( Image: © Wild. Rhinoceros beetles are beetles that fight for access to horned dung beetle strength pdf, sign in to an copy... Determining which males get to mate ( expressed in n ) larger scales the question of interest know... Rare bug introduced in animal forest e+ life history of the guard males [ that guards the tunnel.! These underground tunnels, so that we can relate to flight performance in monarch butterflies trials included. 8 beetles were thawed and then photographed from above with a human equivalent, males.

To Err Is Human To Forgive Is Divine Story, Vanguard Japan Funds, Nestle Milk Pack Cream In Usa, Combat Sports Meaning, To Animate Crossword Clue, Games For Autistic Teenager, 100000 Afghani To Usd, Is The University Of America Accredited, Deer Fly Repellent Plants, Cessna 340 Robertson Stol For Sale,