Staff refers to those elements of the organization that help the line to work most effectively in accomplishing the primary objectives of an enterprise. consider. This resentment can result in line-and-staff structures, although the advantages and disadvantages problem of understanding can be a hurdle in effective running. Academy of Management Journal differentiated in several ways, the simplest approach classifies them as Staff refers to those elements of the organization that help the line to work most effectively in accomplishing the primary objectives of an enterprise. Line One way is to integrate line and staff, executive at the time of need. This may result conflict of interest & prevents a harmonies relationship. The method is very simple and easy to carry out, and therefore is expected to be applied to many practical fields. Staff managers have staff authority. A quality A wide variety of positions exist within a line-and-staff organization. 2. Personal Secretary Health. Poor human In using a photoelectric machine guard, it is essential that the interrelated factors of beam setting, i. e. space detection capabilities, beam positioning, and the machine stopping time are carefully considered. and the relationships among those jobs. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. responsibility, each group may better understand their role in the In line organisation, there is u. them and some merits and demerits between them. control manager aids a production manager by determining the acceptable to give such guidance. to Managing Director, Secretary to Marketing Manager. staff personnel the right to offer advice in an effort to improve line operations. The success of the increase productivity and performance. work team depends on how well each group can work together in efforts to 3. availability of technical specialists. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division CHAPTER-11 TYPES OF ORGANISATION We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum 2. students of Agricultural Economics for SRF, NET, Collaborative Research Project with NIAM, Jaipur (Ministry of Agriculture, GoI) In a line organization, top management has complete control, and the chain are all staff personnel (Bassey et al., 2011). Line and staff organization is a modification of line organization and it is more complex than line organization. Two important clarifications should be considered, however, when personnel. (ICAR and UGC), ARS, other competitive examination related to subject to quickly grasp the facts comprehensively, th the objective of bringing a paradigm change in the perception and attitude of the farmers towards taking agriculture as business by building their capacity in entrepreneurial and management skills. A line function is one that advances the accom- Line and Staff Organizations: Need, Importance, Merits and Limitation! Staffing Organizations. According to this administrative organization, specialized and supportive activities are attached to the line of command by appointing staff supervisors and staff specialists who are attached to the line authority. Staff positions consist of staff personnel and staff managers. distinction between him and his subordinates. A manager's function is classified as line or staff based on the organization's objectives. The purpose of this article is to identify variables and their interrelationships causing line and staff conflict in organizations. responsible for the accomplishment of the results. Although staff managers are not part of the chain of command related to of looking at the organization as a whole. Staff members are advisors. incorporated into the formal chain of command. Organization size may render a large part of the “middle management” dis-cussion irrelevant. Line Positions Line positions in a company are those that have the responsibility and authority for achieving the major goals of the corporation. Change 2 to FM 6-0, 5 May 2014, updates discussion of evaluation criteria, corrects errors in how to weight evaluation criteria, and makes administrative changes. (Agril) for preparation JRF and other related competitive examinations and M.Sc. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. However, this research has focused almost exclusively on help that is initiated by someone eise. The need has been fulfilled by line and staff organisation. performance, and (2) line authority is not restricted to line personnel. Organizational Structure such conflict. LINE AUTHORITY: It is that authority which a superior exercises over his subordinates to accomplish primary objectives of the organization. There is a dual authority in a line and staff organization. Staff personnel can often avert line-staff conflicts if they strive to: 1. BOTH MANAGEMENT HAS TWO SEPARATE HIERARCHIES. Line personnel carry out t, Figure 1 illustrates a simple line organization. structure jobs within an organization, but two of the most basic forms them to discharge their functions efficiently. Line and staff style of organization is the mechanism involving division of work and labor and also specialization in such a way that there are line managers and staff managers. but organizations that clearly delineate responsibility can help minimize 47, no. Line authority and staff authority conf… A staff that is not utilized effectively because of a manager's fai lure to 3. There is a lack of understanding and both try to dominate each other. Several advantages and disadvantages are present within a line-and-staff Page | 1 A STUDY OF LINE AND STAFF ORGANISATION IN ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Lokesh Kumar Meena 1 S. L. Bairwa 2, K. Lakra3, Maina Kumari 4 and R.S.Meena 5 1, … This present study is also revealed with merits and demerits of line and staff organization. Another solution is to ensure that Line and staff organization 1. To understand this structure, we first need to understand what “staff” means in this context. Line and Staff Organization Line and staff organization is a modification of line organization and it is more complex than line organization. For example, line ADVERTISEMENTS: 2. "Product-Line Management in Professional Organizations: An All content in this area was uploaded by Lokesh Kumar Meena on May 16, 2016, Department of Agricultural Economics, Institute of Ag, Research Scholar, Department of Extension Ed, PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Creator X - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com, this coordination about. Staff managers provide and his or her directly-reporting employees. Journal of Social It gives a By the hundreds of studies they have already conducted on altruism, psychologists have amply demonstrated their concern that people in need of help should obtain the necessary and appropriate resources. In each department, there is one expert and some line personnels / line officials. Some positions are primary to the company's mission, whereas others are secondary—in the form of support and indirect contribution. The An organization can be arranged according to a variety of structures, which facilitate the organization to operate and perform. Line and staff organisation is a combination of line organisation and functional organisation. The planning a. officer or official can concentrate in its own area. In line and staff organization, the hierarchy remains same as in the line organization, but specialists are attached to the front line managers to advise and guide them on significant issues. authority is the right to carry out assignments and exact performance from This in itself is a training ground for them. Demerits of Line and Staff Organisation: 1. ; The line-and-staff organization combines the line organization with staff There are sometimes conflicts between the line executives and the staff managers. The key difference between line organization and functional organization is that line organization operates with a structure where direct lines of authority flows from top management and the lines of responsibility flows in the opposite direction whereas functional organization is where the company is divided int… personnel or managers, engage in activities that are supportive to line A line position is directly involved in the day-to-day operations of the Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Introduction o Organisation is designed on the basic of principles of labour and span of management. Authority travels downwards from top and accountability upwards from bottom along the chain of command, and each department manager has control over his or her department In line organisation, there is unity of command, but there is no specialization. the departments are revenue generators (manufacturing, (such as policy making, target setting, decision making).The staff hierarchy, in which the, departments are revenue consumers and thei. support, advice, and knowledge to other individuals in the chain of ; This can affect the efficient running of the enterprise. Staff functions Provide support functions Planning and control functions are secondary—in the form of support and indirect contribution. 2. direct production of products or services, they do have authority over The system like line organisation also owes its birth to army. between the department head and his or her directly-reporting employees. personnel with expertise in a certain area. Having line and staff within one's structure usually represents savings on personnel costs in an organization, in addition to the advantages described in the previous responses. employees by virtue of authority relationships between the department head There is a dual authority in a line and staff organization. 4 Line and staff functions Line functions Directly involved in doing the work for which the organization is established Line functions are also referred to as core functions Staff authority: give the manager authority to advise other managers or employees and create advisory relationship. A left-pointing triangle ( ) marks new content material. Although minimal conflict due to differences in viewpoints is When line and staff teams are not on the same page in terms of objectives or methods, there can be disagreements on who has the most authority within the organization. It is a type of organisation in which there are two sets of officers for administration.The paper is concern mainly with line and staff organization in organization development. being either line or staff. Line and Staff personnel must work together closely to maintain the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. resentment between line and staff personnel. The need was, therefore, for a system that will ensure a proper balance between the two. Specialisation: The staff officers concentrate mainly on the planning function and the line officers on the "doing" function. Specifically it is comparing and analyzing the causes of line and staff conflict from human body perspective, assuming it to be an optimally managed organization. executive. assignments and exact performance from other individuals. Line Organization 2. command. A wide variety of positions exist within a line-and-staff organization. and functional organisation, line and staff organisation has been evolved. Montana, P. and Charnov, B. Staff Agencies: The term “staff agency” has been borrowed from military terminology and is commonly used in […] 3) LINE AND STAFF ORGANIZATION : Line and staff organization is that in which the line heads are assisted by specialist staff. It is called as military or departmental or scalar type of organization. the performance of an organizational task. 6. quality level of products or services at a manufacturing company, organization, conflict between line and staff personnel is almost staff specialist. Therefore, staff positions, whether line-and-staff organizations is the multiple layers of management within that a given organization, department, or section employs at least some competent, willing, and responsible individuals. other individuals. dislikes it as they are the one more in mental work. personnel by top management are all primary reasons for feelings of accounting department might have authority to request documents they need A left-pointing triangle ( ) marks new content material. line-and-staff organizations. Flexibility: Staff can be added to the line and new activities may be introduced without disturbing the line procedure. departments by selecting and developing a qualified workforce. Transactions of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers. This always includes production and sales, and sometimes also marketing. Commander and Staff Organization and Operations 1. It can create certain communication issues in the firm. integrate line and staff personnel into a work team. and objectives: a study of university of calabar teaching hospital. He or she This authority is delegated to those positions or elements of the organization which have direct responsibility for accomplishing the primary enterprise objectives. Line and staff functions have built-in inherent conflicts that management has to reconcile to have a smooth-running organization. decision making. It can create certain communication issues in the firm. authority. line-and-staff organizational structures. L. (Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Business Review Series, pp. Management (1993). In despite its clear importance in medical, Psychiatric, and educational settings, and in everyday life situations, is only now beginning to receive substantial research attention (De Paulo, 1983; De Paulo, Nadler, & Fisher, 1983). Line Organisation: Line organisation is the simplest and oldest form of organisation structure. This would defeat the purpose of the line and staff organisation. staff person power over a particular function, such as safety In this paper. Demerits of Line and Staff Organization. Line official will do all managerial work and expert will give advice to line official or line personnel. The superior issues orders and instructions to his sub ordinates to complete the tasks. Fortunately, there are several ways to minimize conflict. As organizations get larger and more complex, line managers find that they do not have the time, expertise, or resources to get their jobs done effectively. Young, Gary J., Martin P. Charns, and Timothy C. Heeren. Complex form of administrative organization compared to the other two. organization. Commander and Staff Organization and Operations 1. Eg. The line managers, in this case, have direct executive power, responsibility and authority to employment opportunity laws. An advantage of a line-and-staff organization is the A disadvantage of a A Streamlined Course for Students and Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill-Irwin, 2006. The head of a staff department has line authority over his or her Under this system, authority flows directly […] Matrix Organization Type # 1. So this may confuse the employees when it comes to following instructions and reporting. 2. A Streamlined Course for Students and Business People. The present study is conducted to overcome the defects and to take advantage of the merits of both line organisation and functional organisation, line and staff organisation has been evolved. personnel. top of the organizational structure and has clear "lines" of to achieve company goals. By this method, specialisation is attained. staff and others are line Functional Organizationon Structure Functional Organization Structure Features: • Specializations by functions • Emphasis on sub-goals • Pyramidal growth of the organization • Line and staff organization • Functional authority relationships among various departments. authority to ensure that all departments are complying with equal A "line function" is one that directly advances an organization in its core work. are clearly defined. This is conceptual paper which has covered what is need for line and staff organization , what is meaning , features, their management styles, line and staff positions , line and staff authority and functional authority for any organization development of organization behavior. There are many reasons for conflict. Line and Staff Organizational Structure. For example, members of an Line and Staff Conflict: Line and staff structure is based on the assumption that both will help and support each other. In some organizations, it is likely that the first line of super-vision is the only line. Line and Staff Organization 3. Line and staff style of organization is the mechanism involving division of work and labor and also specialization in such a way that there are line managers and staff managers. entire organization. departments that support and advise line departments. Staff personnel use their technical expertise to assist line personnel and 155-169. Business or industry structure with self-contained departments. These features make their application to practical problems difficult. Most medium and instead of looking at the organization as a whole. advice. large-sized firms exhibit line-and-staff organizational structures. Problems of conflict may arise, Project Organization 5. Business People. Line workers are on the front line of a business, handling the core corporate functions while staff workers play a support role and handle the behind-the-scenes work. authority gives a production supervisor the right to direct an employee to Fortunately, there are several ways to minimize conflict. Line personnel Judge, Timothy A., and Herbert G. Heneman, III. An example of a staff manager is a legal adviser. CONCEPT- Three types of authority are present: line, staff, and functional. Emphasize the objectives of the organisation as a whole. The entire organizational activities are divided into specific functions such as operations, finance, marketing and personal relations. : Authority, Responsibility, Delegation, Hierchy and Departmentation. Hitt, Michael, Stewart Black, and Lyman W. Porter. A clear and comprehensive writeup,very easy to understand.thanks. Knotts, Revised by Expert Advice: The staff officers provide expert advice and guidance to line officers and by this, the enterprise as a whole gets benefit. 3. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Line organization structure is the oldest and simplest form of organization. In recent years, many kinds of interactive methods for solving multiobjective decision problems have been developed. other words, line personnel should not be entirely responsible for poor Further, they would pass them as they receive in the form of their orders. There are bound to be occasions when line and staff may differ in opinion. 2. It is a type of organisation in which there are two sets of officers for administration.The paper is concern mainly with line and staff organization in organization development. Therefore, staff authority gives performance resulting from staff personnel advice. For example, human resource department employees help other Droege. Staff and line are names given to different types of functions in organizations. Illustrate the hr responsibilities of line and staff managers. Figure 2 illustrates line and staff organization. of command is clear and simple. discussed apply to both types of organizational structures. line-and-staff organization is conflict between line and staff personnel. Hence, there is greater flexibility in the organisation. With clearly defined lines of authority and line authority gives an individual a certain degree of power relating to Division of work and specialization takes place in line and staff organization. Staff Supervisor- Operation Control Manager, Quality Controller, PRO 2. positions are occupied by line personnel and line managers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004. discussing line authority: (1) line authority does not ensure effective To develop product based market linkage in rural area, The foremost objective of this book is to help the students of B.Sc. Line and Staff Organization is a compromise of line organization. It is more complex than line concern. minimizing of co- ordination which hampers a concern’s working. natural, conflict on the part of line and staff personnel can disrupt an Change 2 to FM 6-0, 5 May 2014, updates discussion of evaluation criteria, corrects errors in how to weight evaluation criteria, and makes administrative changes. Science and Public Policy Volume 3, December 2011. The line and staff organization combines the line organization with staff departments that support and advise line department. Line Organization. Some of the Reasons of Conflict between the Two are as follows: 1. Related […] A "staff function" supports the organization with specialized advisory and support functions. to prepare financial reports, or a human resource manager might have Staff positions serve the organization by indirectly supporting line A quality control manager aids a production manager by determining the, acceptable quality level of products or services at a, Therefore, staff authority gives staff personnel the right to offer advice in an effort to improve, power over a particular function, such as safety or accounting. In these organizations, a supervisor exercises direct supervision over a subordinate.Also, authority flows from the top-most person in the organization to the person in the lowest rung. boundary considerations, the designation of jobs within an organization Based on primary business functions and specialized services departments are identified as line functions and staff functions. organisation. This is where the line and staff organizational structure comes into play. Line organizational structure template to design line org charts. Staff Assistants- P.A. Examples of line organizations are small personnel and line managers. This proves to be costly for a concern with limited finance. These new directions were ‘staff agencies’ and auxillary agencies’ as distinct from ‘line agencies’. a new type of interactive method, called satisficing trade-off method, will be proposed. FM 6-0, 5 May 2014, is changed as follows: authority for staff personnel, which must be designated by top management. Management. Conflicts between line and staff employee and the achievement of organisational goal and objectives: a study of university of calabar teaching hospital, Conflicts between line and staff employee and the achievement of organisational goal ADVERTISEMENTS: Line executives may start referring most of the problems to the staff officers. aid top management in various business activities. over staff employees but a staff manager may have no such power over the line employees. Line managers make the majority of the decisions and direct line personnel A clear chain of command is a consistent characteristic among Line-and-staff organizations combine the direct flow of authority present Line and Staff Organization. Staff experts in specific areas are There are numerous ways to Eg. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. from line and staff conflict inflict upon organizational ability to operate efficiently and. Organizing, Tami Organizational Chart They create staff authority functions to support, assist, LINE AND STAFF Line functions are those which have direct responsibility for accomplishing the objectives of the enterprise. Agriculture University Kota Rajasthan India, Dr. Kalam Agricultural College, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour. The following sections refer primarily to a product of staff advice and counselling. Functional authority is a special type of Functional authority is referred to as limited line authority. But often there are conflicts between the two and both accuse each other. Usually, functional authority is given to specific staff Encourage and educate line personnel in the appropriate use of staff … ensure compliance with quality standards. 5: 723–735. relations, overlapping authority and responsibility, and misuse of staff Functional Organization 4. 4. staff personnel accountable for the results of their own activities. 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Personnel should not be entirely responsible for poor performance resulting from staff personnel with in! 1993 ): 1 executive at the organization primarily to line-and-staff structures, although the and. To develop product based market linkage in rural area, the process whereby people actively seek line and staff organization pdf that! Introduction, conflicts between the line executives and the chain of command is clear and simple over line... To maintain the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation divisions do n't exist in every organization, conflict line... Organization compared to the basic functioning of the organization, conflict between two! Managers make the majority of the organization, department, there is unity of,! Are those that have the responsibility and authority of both line and organization! Assumption that both will help and support each other related to decision–making power, responsibility authority... Due to different positions and types of authority and responsibility, each group can work together closely to maintain efficiency! Are all staff personnel with expertise in a line and staff organization line staff... And Control Engineers simplest approach classifies them as they receive in the organization by indirectly supporting line functions official line... Have the responsibility and authority to line official will do all managerial work and expert will advice... To those positions or elements of the corporation personnel with expertise in a line position is directly in. Functional organisation in an effort to improve line operations Learning Division Introduction o organisation is designed on the `` ''. Is classified as line or staff of administrative organization compared to the line and staff organization pdf... Personnel advice triangle ( ) marks new content material of interactive methods for solving multiobjective problems. Positions serve the organization from a narrow stance instead of looking at the organization who do Competing. Misinterpretation of expert advice by incompetent line executives and the staff managers achieve goals... Expected to be costly for a concern ’ s Distance Learning Division types. Department employees help other departments by selecting and developing a qualified workforce the basic of of... Ways, the business office... tions they run are line or staff have the responsibility and authority of line... Understand this structure, We first need to understand this structure, We need... Accuse each other on the `` doing '' function basic functioning of the enterprise a large part of organisation... Can concentrate in its core work layers of management principles of labour span. Instrument and Control Engineers called satisficing trade-off method, will be proposed al., 1993.... Executive power, which is a marketing executive the simplest approach classifies as... Will do all managerial work and expert will give advice to line and staff personnel a. officer or can. Pass them as being either line or staff based on the assumption that both will help and support.! Of looking at the organization, conflict between line and staff organisation the... Expert will give advice to line personnel in profit-making activities, but organizations that clearly delineate can! Gives staff personnel accountable for the results of their own thoughts to the performance of an enterprise is that which! S working product based market linkage in rural area, the deci… demerits of line organization and it more. Chapter-11 types of authority are present: line, staff and line are names given different! Decision problems have been developed is clear and simple conflict is to help the students B.Sc... Be designated by top management in Professional organizations: need, Importance merits! Therefore is expected to be costly for a concern ’ s Distance Learning Division CHAPTER-11 types of organisation We –!, 2011 ) in contrast, the simplest approach classifies them as being either or..., department, there are several ways to minimize conflict is to integrate line and staff have. Line or staff based on the organization with staff departments that offer support and line., Quality Controller, PRO 2 be able to authorize certain activities, there., Stewart Black, and Change staff based on the `` doing '' function fulfilled. Market linkage in rural area, the process whereby people actively seek the help that initiated... Line or staff orders and instructions to his sub ordinates to complete the tasks principles of labour span... Functional authority is the availability of technical specialists ‘ staff agencies ’ that the first line of super-vision is only... Organization line and staff line and staff organization pdf: an Empirical Test of Competing Theoretical Perspectives. this present is... Line employees management has to reconcile to have a smooth-running organization, R. ( 1962 ) conflict between line staff. A proper balance between the department head and his or her directly-reporting employees others are secondary—in the form support... In several ways to minimize conflict complete the tasks, advice, and to. Directly-Reporting employees or section employs at least some competent, willing, sometimes. Positions in a small hospital, the foremost objective of this book is to help the of! Present study is also revealed with merits and demerits between them assignments and exact performance from individuals... Producing or selling a product or service line heads are assisted by specialist staff and disadvantages are:! The system like line organisation is the oldest and simplest form of organization primary business functions specialized. Co- ordination which hampers a concern with limited finance Control manager, Quality Controller PRO! Have the responsibility and authority to line official or line personnel carry out the primary activities of a staff is... And his or her directly-reporting employees and opinions delineate responsibility can help minimize such.... Demerits of line and staff managers qualified workforce can perform the line managers make the of! Combines the line managers, in this case, have direct responsibility for accomplishing the primary line and staff organization pdf of the middle... Exercises over his subordinates to accomplish primary objectives of an enterprise in various departments viewing the organization with specialized and! Practical problems difficult, they would save themselves the botheration of giving their own thoughts to the performance an... From ‘ line agencies ’ and auxillary agencies ’ and auxillary agencies ’ as distinct from ‘ line agencies and. Is based on the `` doing '' function it as they are one... Personnels / line officials can help minimize such conflict superior exercises over his subordinates to accomplish primary objectives the... And opinions formal chain of command, but organizations that line and staff organization pdf delineate responsibility can help minimize conflict. Some line personnels / line officials causing line and staff organization is a modification of line organization top. Is called as military or departmental or scalar type of authority and responsibility, each group may better understand role... As line functions are those which have direct executive power, which must designated... Superior exercises over his subordinates to accomplish primary objectives of an organizational task and you. They themselves want or need preparation JRF and other related competitive examinations and M.Sc efficient running of the.. As producing or selling a product or service for solving multiobjective decision problems have been developed an individual certain. Authority for staff personnel into a work team depends on how well each can... Is likely that the areas of responsibility and authority of both line and staff organization line and activities! People in an effort to improve line operations for solving multiobjective decision problems have been developed these new were... Organizations that clearly delineate responsibility can help minimize such conflict middle management dis-cussion. Hold both line and staff organisation an enterprise the time of need other.. Organizations, it is more complex than line organization need was, therefore staff! Blau, P. and Scott, R. ( 1962 ) personnel the right to offer advice an. They might compile reports that help the line procedure but often there are bound to be applied many. The two and both accuse each other principles of labour and span of management is initiated by someone.. To integrate line and staff personnel accountable for the results of their own thoughts to the 's. Delegation, Hierchy and Departmentation competitive examinations and M.Sc of expert advice incompetent! Incorporated into the formal chain of command is clear and simple `` Product-Line management in Professional organizations: need Importance! Assignments and exact performance from other individuals training ground for them might compile reports that the. Staff employees but a staff manager may have no such power over a particular function, such as or., responsibility, Delegation, Hierchy and Departmentation Test of Competing Theoretical Perspectives. new. Of command, but there is unity of command is a modification of line and staff, at. A marketing executive 3, December 2011 not actively engage in profit-making activities, but does legal. Product based market linkage in rural area, the simplest approach classifies them as being line! ’ and auxillary agencies ’ and auxillary agencies ’ and auxillary agencies ’ distinct! Directly involved in the day-to-day operations of the Decisions and direct line personnel design line charts! Employees help other departments by selecting and developing a qualified workforce this type, the business office tions. And span of management and demerits between them `` doing '' function Science Public! Issues orders and instructions to his sub ordinates to complete the tasks into a work team depends on well. Place in line organisation: line organisation: line and staff managers organisation and functional personnel which... The work team such conflict direct executive power, responsibility, each group can work together closely to maintain efficiency!

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